Wednesday, February 24, 2010


Jurnal Rekayasa Vol 6 No 1 Artikel 10

Sri Sukmawati
(Staf Pengajar Jurusan Teknik Sipil, Fakultas Teknik, Universitas Jember)

ABSTRACT: In Islamic religion, looking towards kiblat (Ka'Bah, Masjidil Haram, and Mekkah) is a Moslem rule which must be done when shalat and buried dead body. In Jember is found thousands of mosque, mushalla with direction which vary between 270o - 294º. This variation indicate that understanding of kiblat direction and especially the practice shalat.
Determination of direction can be conducted with Method Stick of Istiwa and Astronomical Geodesy assumed earth as ball. Method Stick of Istiwa is technique determination of simple direction ,but have high accuracy storey;level, that is seen Phenomenon of Transit Especial of Above Sun of Makkah town, recognized also with term of Istiwa ' Azam ( Especial Istiwa). Istiwa ' Azam or of Istiwa Especial or especial transit is sun position moment reside in precisely in Zenith dot ( precise above head) a location where this event only happened in area among 23,5º Paralel North and 23,5º Paralel South. Especial Istiwa that happened in Makkah town can be exploited by clan of Muslimin in nations about different Arab specially time at the most 5 hours to determine direction by presisi use sun shadow technique. Istiwa ' Azam in Makkah is happened twice in one year, that is on 28 Mei at 12.18 Time’s Makkah and 16 July at 12.27 Time’s Makkah. While at Kabisat’s year, date of this go forward 1 day that is 27 May and 15 July at the same time.
Town of Jember, geographically located in 113º42' Longitude East and 8º10' Paralel South. Makkah, geographically located in 39º50' Longitude East and 21º25' Paralel North. Difference Meridian show time difference. Town of Jember and Makkah reside in the same longituade. Longitudinal difference of him, about 74º, if divided 15º, result of 4,9. becoming time difference between Makkah and of Jember 4,9 hours, less than 5 hours. Makkah and of Jember, both on area between 23,5º Paralel North and 23,5º Paralel South. Become determination of direction with method of Istiwa, can be conducted in Jember on 28 May at 16.18 WIB or 16 July at 16.27 WIB in the year habit. For leap year go forward 1 ( day satu). Using astronomical calculation [of] geodesy, Jember which located in 113º42' Longitude East and 8º10' Paralel South, with interpolation result of program calculation of NGDC, on 26 Februari 2009, got declination / variation for Jember equal to 1º31' easterly, mean per annum can be disregarded. Thereby instruct direction of Jember shown by compass needle equal to - 1º31 = 64º28'54,27" ( up at west rather to north. Imprecise thus up at west) ,

Keywords : kiblat direction, Astronomical Geodesy